Any human endeavour carries some risk, but some are much riskier than others. The probability of something happening multiplied by the resulting cost or benefit if it does. The probability or threat of quantifiable damage, injury, liability, loss, or any other tom bingham rule of law pdf occurrence that is caused by external or internal vulnerabilities, and that may be avoided through preemptive action.
Finance: The possibility that an actual return on an investment will be lower than the expected return. Securities trading: The probability of a loss or drop in value. Non-systematic risk is any risk that isn’t market-related. Also called non-market risk, extra-market risk or diversifiable risk. Product of the consequence and probability of a hazardous event or phenomenon. ISO Guide 73:2002 definition of risk is the ‘effect of uncertainty on objectives’.
It also includes both negative and positive impacts on objectives. Many definitions of risk exist in common usage, however this definition was developed by an international committee representing over 30 countries and is based on the input of several thousand subject matter experts. Very different approaches to risk management are taken in different fields, e. Risk is ubiquitous in all areas of life and risk management is something that we all must do, whether we are managing a major organisation or simply crossing the road. When describing risk however, it is convenient to consider that risk practitioners operate in some specific practice areas. Economic risks can be manifested in lower incomes or higher expenditures than expected. The causes can be many, for instance, the hike in the price for raw materials, the lapsing of deadlines for construction of a new operating facility, disruptions in a production process, emergence of a serious competitor on the market, the loss of key personnel, the change of a political regime, or natural disasters.
One of the strongest links between these is that a single risk event may have impacts in all three areas, albeit over differing timescales. For example, the uncontrolled release of radiation or a toxic chemical may have immediate short-term safety consequences, more protracted health impacts, and much longer-term environmental impacts. Events such as Chernobyl, for example, caused immediate deaths, and in the longer term, deaths from cancers, and left a lasting environmental impact leading to birth defects, impacts on wildlife, etc. Over time, a form of risk analysis called environmental risk analysis has developed. Environmental risk analysis is a field of study that attempts to understand events and activities that bring risk to human health or the environment. As such, risk is a function of hazard and exposure. Hazard is the intrinsic danger or harm that is posed, e.