IPV against women, which can act as a further block to men reporting their situation. The relative prevalence of IPV against men to that of women is highly disputed between different studies, with some countries having no data at the problem with women is men pdf. Some researchers believe the actual number of male victims may be greater than law enforcement statistics suggest due to the number of men who do not report their abuse. However, for both men and women, domestic violence is among the most underreported crimes worldwide.
LGBTQ, or having their masculinity questioned. IPV against men is generally less recognized by society than IPV against women. For some men, this is an admission they are unwilling, or unable, to make. On the other hand, many abusive men readily adopt a victim identity. In cases like this, reporting IPV victimization may lead to exposing themselves as batterers.
Male victims may fear people assuming that the woman is the real victim, and must have been acting in self-defense or retaliating for abuse. Researchers have demonstrated a degree of socio-cultural acceptance of aggression by women against men and a general condemnation of aggression by men against women, due to male violence causing significantly more fear and severe injuries than female violence. IPV they are experiencing is a crime. IPV tend to be viewed by law enforcement agencies and the courts as victims. As such, men may fear that if they do report to the police, they will be assumed to be the abuser, and placed under arrest. However, analyses of research indicates that frequently the legal system fails to view women who use IPV against controlling male partners as victims due to gendered high expectations on women to be the “perfect victim” and the culturally pervasive stereotype of the passive, “cowering” battered woman. Statistics indicate that under-reporting is an inherent problem with IPV irrespective of gender.