Revolutionary mothers women in the struggle for america’s independence pdf, when empowered and involved, WAM can be effective partners in health promotion programs. The methodology includes a meta-analysis of 40 exemplary case studies from across the world, which meet predetermined criteria, to draw implications for social action and health promotion.
While frequencies of methods used varied in all other comparisons, these differences were not statistically significant, suggesting the importance of these methods across problem domains and levels of industrialization. Implications for policy and health promotion programs are discussed. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. This article presents a framework for understanding women’s nonviolent direct action in terms of its definition, history, varieties, and significance.
Definitions are suggested for the terms direct action, nonviolence, and militancy. The history of women’s nonviolent direct action is briefly surveyed, from early times to the 20th century. The great variety of actions, particularly in recent decades, is analyzed as falling into a number of categories described in the words of participants. Though the history, scope, and influence of women’s direct action are still too little known to be fully assessed, and many questions remain to be explored, it is clear that it has had a more extensive history than has been generally recognized and has had major impact in manysignificant movements for social change.
I would like to express thanks for some of the information and materials used in this article to Charlotte Clark, Jane E. Fink for reviewing the manuscript and suggesting revisions. Special thanks also to Jane Mohraz for editing, discussions of the content, and helping to control the burgeoning length. Finally, warm thanks to all the women from whom I have learned in the course of doing or discussing women’s direct action, and a plea for forgiveness to all those wonderful women and groups I have been unable to name in this paper. 1989 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Five women go on a hike.