In cooking, only flesh red and processed meat cancer pdf mammals or fowl is classified as red or white. Some meat, such as pork, is red meat under the nutritional definition, and white meat using the common or gastronomic definition. Most poultry is white, but duck and goose are red. Most cuts of pork are red, others are white.
In 2011, the Harvard School of Public Health launched the Healthy Eating Plate in part because of the perceived inadequacies of the USDA’s recommendations. The Healthy Eating Plate encourages consumers to avoid processed meat and limit red meat consumption to twice a week because of links to heart disease, diabetes, and colon cancer. To replace these meats it recommends consuming fish, poultry, beans or nuts. There is some evidence too that the consumption of unprocessed red meat may have negative health effects in humans. A 2013 meta-analysis found an increased risk of gastric cancer with higher consumption of red or processed meat. Studies that differentiate between processed and fresh red meat have failed to find a link between unprocessed red meat consumption and heart disease.
The study suggests that the “differences in salt and preservatives, rather than fats, might explain the higher risk of heart disease and diabetes seen with processed meats, but not with unprocessed red meats. Several studies have found a correlation between unprocessed red meat and the occurrence of CHD and certain types of stroke and have controlled for various confounding risk factors. The disparity between metadata studies definitely need to be addressed, because while one points toward unprocessed red meat being insignificant in certain health risks, there are still correlations to be found in focused large cohort studies. Most processed meat contains at least some red meat. To enhance flavor or improve preservation meat is treated by salting, curing, fermentation, smoking, or other processes to create processed meat. This aromatic hydrocarbon is normally found in coal tar, wood burning, or automobile exhaust fumes. PhIP was present in a medium-done barbecued steak.
Harvard School of Public Health, 2012. The results of our analysis support a moderate positive association between processed meat consumption and mortality, in particular due to cardiovascular diseases, but also to cancer. Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis”. Above this level, the risk increase is less pronounced. International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group.
Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat”. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. Category:CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. Harvard University School of Public Health. Cardiovascular effects of n-3 fatty acids”. Dietary iron as a risk factor for myocardial infarction. Public health considerations for Nova Scotia”.