XV in particular it’s said “From an inconstruable beginning comes transmigration. Every rebirth is temporary and impermanent. In each rebirth one is born and dies, philip novak ed the world’s wisdom harperone 1992 pdf be reborn elsewhere in accordance with one’s own karma.
The mechanistic details of the Samsara doctrine vary within the Buddhist traditions. Medieval and contemporary texts typically describe six realms of reincarnation. Buddhist cosmology typically identifies six realms of rebirth and existence: gods, demi-gods, humans, animals, hungry ghosts and hells. The six realms are organized into thirty one levels in east Asian literature. A rebirth in this heavenly realm is believed to be from very good karma accumulation. Vast majority of Buddhist lay people, states Kevin Trainor, have historically pursued Buddhist rituals and practices motivated with rebirth into Deva realm. Hindu cosmology such as Mount Meru.
They accumulate karma, and are reborn. Buddhism asserts that one is reborn in this realm with vastly different physical endowments and moral natures because of a being’s past karma. A rebirth in this realm is considered as fortunate because it offers an opportunity to attain nirvana and end the Saṃsāra cycle. This realm is traditionally thought to be similar to a hellish realm, because animals are believed in Buddhist texts to be driven by impulse and instinct, they prey on each other and suffer. Some Buddhist texts assert that plants belong to this realm, with primitive consciousness. They do not have a body, are invisible and constitute only “subtle matter” of a being. Buddhist texts describe them as beings who are extremely thirsty and hungry, very small mouths but very large stomachs.
Buddhist traditions in Asia attempt to care for them on ritual days every year, by leaving food and drinks in open, to feed any hungry ghosts nearby. When their bad karma demerit runs out, these beings are reborn into another realm. According to Yangsi Rinpoche, in contrast, the suffering of the beings born in the realm of the hungry ghosts is far more intense than those born in the animal realm. The texts vary in their details, but typically describe numerous hellish regions each with different forms of intense suffering, such as eight extremely hot hellish realms, eight extremely cold, being partially eaten alive, beating and other forms of torture in proportion to the evil karma accumulated. These beings are reborn in another realm after their evil karma has run its course, they die, and they get another chance. This realm is not similar to afterlife hell in Christianity, states Damien Keown, because in Buddhism there is no realm of final damnation and existence in this realm is also a temporary state. Samsara is perpetuated by karma.
Karma or ‘action’ results from an intentional physical or mental act, which causes a future consequence. Acts of body and speech are, then, the end products of particular kinds of mentality. At the same time karma can exist as a simple ‘act of will’, a forceful mental intention or volition that does not lead to an act of body or speech. Inconsistencies in the oldest texts show that the Buddhist teachings on craving and ignorance, and the means to attain liberation, evolved, either during the lifetime of the Buddha, or thereafter. According to Frauwallner, the Buddhist texts show a shift in the explanation of the root cause of samsara. Avidya is misconception and ignorance about reality, leading to grasping and clinging, and repeated rebirth. According to Paul Williams, “it is the not-knowingness of things as they truly are, or of oneself as one really is.
It can be overcome by insight into the true nature of reality. The ideas on what exactly constituted this “liberating insight” evolved over time. This happened in those texts where “liberating insight” was preceded by the four jhanas, and where this practice of the four jhanas then culminates in “liberating insight. Hinayana schools, by the doctrine of the non-existence of a substantial self or person. One who no longer sees any soul or self, concludes Walpola Rahula, is the one who has been liberated from the samsara suffering cycles. The theme that Nirvana is non-Self, states Peter Harvey, is recurring in early Buddhist texts.
When this consciousness ceases, then liberation is attained. Buddhism to be “necessary for the continued perpetuation of cyclic existence. While Buddhism considers the liberation from samsara as the ultimate spiritual goal, in traditional practice, Buddhists seek and accumulate merit through good deeds, donations to monks and various Buddhist rituals in order to gain better rebirths rather than nirvana. According to Chogyam Trungpa the realms of samsara can refer to both “psychological states of mind and physical cosmological realms”. The Buddhist cosmology may thus be seen as a map of different realms of existence and a description of all possible psychological experiences.