Our study presents a new analysis for a possible transition to a fully sustainable global energy system. It looks in detail at the various energy-using activities within each demand sector, charting their volume and physical energy intensities over time. The approach pays particular attention to non conventional sources of energy pdf energy efficiency through the use of best available technologies.
This leads to a reduction in total energy demand and a high share of electricity. The decrease in overall demand is achieved despite a growth in both, population and volume of energy services. The electrification occurs primarily in the Buildings and Transport sectors. The pathway is considered achievable because it is based on currently available technology and realistic deployment rates. Policy measures are necessary in all sectors to provide incentives for the transition and we briefly discuss the requirements for these policies. This energy system will use only a fraction of each of the sustainable sources, making it robust. Efficiency and electrification are key requisites to achieve this goal.
Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. The origin and continuation of mankind is based on water. Water is one of the most abundant resources on earth, covering three-fourths of the planet’s surface. This small percentage of the earth’s water—which supplies most of human and animal needs—exists in ground water, lakes and rivers.
The only nearly inexhaustible sources of water are the oceans, which, however, are of high salinity. Therefore, there is a need to employ environmentally-friendly energy sources in order to desalinate seawater. After a historical introduction into desalination, this paper covers a large variety of systems used to convert seawater into fresh water suitable for human use. Both direct and indirect collection systems are included.
The representative example of direct collection systems is the solar still. For this purpose, standard renewable energy and desalination systems are most often employed. Only industrially-tested desalination systems are included in this paper and they comprise the phase change processes, which include the multistage flash, multiple effect boiling and vapour compression and membrane processes, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The paper also includes a review of various systems that use renewable energy sources for desalination. Finally, some general guidelines are given for selection of desalination and renewable energy systems and the parameters that need to be considered. This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.