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Douglas re-purposed one screen to demonstrate portraying other information to the user, such as the state of a noughts and crosses game. After the game served its purpose, it was discarded on the original hardware but later successfully reconstructed. Under some definitions, it thus may qualify as the first video game, though other definitions exclude it due to its lack of moving or real-time updating graphics. Like other early video games, after serving Douglas’s purpose, the game was discarded. University of Cambridge’s Mathematical Laboratory by special permission, as the EDSAC could not be moved, and both the computer and the game were only intended for academic research purposes. This page was last edited on 25 January 2018, at 19:40.
In this study of an Indonesian language class in Australia, I propose that students are agentive in adopting, rejecting and deploying discursive positions within the classroom. There are a range of identities made available in the classroom, only some of which are taken up and privileged within specific moments in the classroom. I apply the notions of voice, script and counterscript to suggest that identity is a process of seeking to exercise influence over others and trying to present oneself in a favourable light. Analyses of episodes reveals that students move in and out of identity positions as the Indonesian language lesson progresses and these moves have ideological and material consequences for the participants. The discoursal journey of Nancy, an indigenous student, involves a move from being an active participant in establishing the official script of the Indonesian lesson to being silent and resistant. Nancy adopts the identity of an invisible Aboriginal woman—put in place largely by her peers, but supported and scaffolded through the symbolic violence perpetrated by the institution.
The study highlights the interface between broader societal processes and the moment-to-moment interactions of the classroom and provides a window into the ideological becoming of students in the dynamic social spaces of the Indonesian classroom. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Screen reader users, click the load entire article button to bypass dynamically loaded article content. Please note that Internet Explorer version 8. Click the View full text link to bypass dynamically loaded article content.
This chapter focuses on capabilities and limitations of a computer. The identification of artificial intelligence with mathematics may represent a view associated with the emotions and instincts that are found in the animal world and the human, but intelligence is logical and, hence, mathematical. However, the themes of artificial intelligence is to try to imbue programs with learning capabilities, that is, have the programs use and generalize upon past experience. In computer programs, this learning capability is usually limited to simple success or failure reinforcement schemes.
Another substantial effort of artificial intelligence in a well-defined environment is the application of computerized mechanical theorem proving. The ability to learn natural language is the distinguishing characteristic of human intelligence, from which other abilities follow. The fact that present-day computers have limited capabilities for playing games, solving problems, and dealing with languages is not in itself a guide to predicting their eventual capabilities. Despite the converging efforts by scientists from many disciplines, it is turning out to be enormously difficult to understand the way in which memory, learning, recognition, and conceptualization take place in the brain. This article has not been cited. To me, it seems too formal, suggesting that such a complex topic as composition can be boiled down to a few quick tips.
Is Nikon’s New 500mm FL Too Sharp? I have aimed this article at the heart of photography school’s most basic lesson in composition: the rule of thirds. I wrote this article while I normally would have been sleeping. If you find the rule of thirds to be helpful, please do not take this article to be an attack on your style of composition.