However, decolonization not only refers to the complete “removal of the domination of non-indigenous forces” within the geographical space and different institutions of the colonized, but it also refers to the “decolonizing of the mind” from national identity in south sudan after independence pdf colonizers’ ideas that made the colonized feel inferior. Decolonization is a political process and vital internalization of the rejection of colonialist mindsets and “norms.
Independence is often difficult to achieve without the encouragement and practical support from one or more external parties. Imperial power goes to war to defend the right of a colony to continue to be a colony. Colonial powers have sometimes promoted decolonization in order to shed the financial, military and other burdens that tend to grow in those colonies where the colonial governments have become more benign. Decolonization became a popular movement in many colonies in the 20th century, and a reality after 1945. 1776, and were recognized as an independent nation by France in 1778 and Britain in 1783. The United States of America was the first set of European established colonies to achieve independence and establish itself as a nation, and was the first independent settler state in the Americas. The chaos of the Napoleonic wars in Europe cut the direct links between Spain and its American colonies, allowing for process of decolonization to begin.
With the invasion of Spain by Napoleon in 1806, the American colonies declared autonomy and loyalty to King Ferdinand VII. The economic monopoly of the metropolis was the main reason why many countries decided to become independent from Spain. In 1809, the independence wars of Latin America begun with a revolt in La Paz, Bolivia. In 1807 and 1808, the Viceroyalty of the River Plate was invaded by the British, after their 2nd defeat a Frenchman called Santiague de Liniers was proclaimed new Viceroy by the local population, and later accepted by Spain. In May 1810 in Buenos Aires, a Junta was created, but in Montevideo it was not recognized by the local government who followed the authority of the Junta of Cadiz, the rivalry between the 2 harbors was the main reason for the distrust between the 2 cities. During the next 15 years, the Spanish and Royalist on one side, and the rebels fought in South America and Mexico.
Numerous countries declared their independence. In 1824, the Spanish forces were defeated in the Battle of Ayacucho. American War, Puerto Rico became a Colony of the U. Cuba was independent in 1902. Cyprus was invaded and taken over by the Ottoman Empire in 1570. It was later relinquished by the Ottomans in 1878. The Cypriots expressed their true disdain for Ottoman rule through revolts and nationalist movements.
The Ottomans only suppressed these revolts in the harshest of fashion but that only ended up fueling the revolts and desire for independence. The Cypriots desired to merge with Greece because they felt a close connection with Greece. The Cypriots would embrace Greek culture and traditions. They abandoned Ottoman architecture and showed little respect for Ottoman rule. All these acts of defiance could be attributed to decolonization.
When the Cypriots made acts of nationalism, they were participating in a form of decolonization because they were attempting to remove all trace of Turkic and Muslim influence within their society. Cyprus and after the Ottomans had left, Cyprus continued to create a Greek culture they wished to be a part of. Cyprus would continue to create this imagined identity of Greek culture. This can also be a form of imagined human geography because Cyprus used this identity to justify its revolts and nationalist movements. The Ottoman Empire had failed to raise revenue and a monopoly of effective armed forces. This may have caused the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
Muhammad Ali, and eventually his successors, were de facto monarchs of a largely independent state managing its own foreign relations. However, despite this de facto independence, Egypt did remain nominally a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire obliged to pay a hefty annual tribute to the Sultan. The Ottoman Empire’s residual powers over Egypt remained a threat to its independence, as was shown in 1882 when Great Britain, with the Sultan’s agreement, occupied Egypt permanently. Czechoslovak anti-colonialist propaganda poster: “Socialism opened the door of liberation for colonial nations.