Western Psychology as providing complementary practices for Buddhists. Buddhism in terms of psychology is necessarily a modern invention. European jeremy safran psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapies pdf and psychiatry with Buddhist theory and practice.
The presentation and exploration of parts of Buddhist teachings as a Psychology and psychological method for analyzing and modifying human experience. Buddha containing much psychological material. According to the Buddha while initially unreliable, one’s mind can be trained, calmed and cultivated so as to make introspection a refined and reliable method. This methodology is the foundation for the personal insight into the nature of the mind the Buddha is said to have achieved. While introspection is a key aspect of the Buddhist method, observation of a person’s behavior is also important. The contact between these bases leads to a perceptual event as explained in Buddhist texts: “when the eye that is internal is intact and external visible forms come within its range, and when there is an appropriate act of attention on the part of the mind, there is the emergence of perceptual consciousness.
Therefore, perception for the Buddhists is not just based on the senses, but also on our desires, interests and concepts and hence it is in a way unrealistic and misleading. False belief and attachment to an abiding ego-entity is at the root of most negative emotions. The notion of an “empty self” posits that there is no “CEO of the mind,” but rather something like committees constantly vying for power. In this view, the “self” is not a stable, enduring entity in control, but rather a mirage of the mind—not actually real, but merely seemingly so. So the Buddhist model of the self may turn out to fit the data far better than the notions that have dominated Psychological thinking for the last century.
Nama refers to the non-physical elements and rupa to the physical components. According to Padmasiri de Silva, “The mental and physical constitutents form one complex, and there is a mutual dependency of the mind on the body and of the body on the mind. Kama tanha – craving for sensory gratification, sex, novel stimuli, and pleasure. Bhava tanha – craving for survival or continued existence, also includes hunger and sleep as well as desire for power, wealth and fame. These are opposed by three wholesome roots: liberality, kindness and wisdom.
The Buddha also makes a distinction between worldly and unworldly or spiritual feelings, seeing spiritual feelings as superior. The Buddhist theory of emotions also highlights the ethical and spiritual importance of positive emotions such as compassion and friendliness as antidotes for negative emotions and as vehicles for self development. According to Padmasiri de Silva, in the early Buddhist texts emotions can be divided into four groups: “those which obstruct the ideal of the virtuous life sought by the layman, emotions that interfere with the recluse seeking the path of perfection, emotions enhancing the layman’s ideal of the virtuous life and emotions developed by the recluse seeking the path of perfection. Yogacara Buddhists and were held to reside in an unconscious mental layer. These factors are said to “intoxicate” and “bemuddle” the mind. The Buddha taught that one had to remove them from the mind through practice in order to reach liberation.
The asavas are said to arise from different factors: sensuality, aggression, cruelty, body, and individuality are some of the factors given. Since Buddhist practice also encompasses practical wisdom, spiritual virtues and morality, it cannot be said to be just another form of psychotherapy. Buddha stated that they also bring mundane benefits such as relaxation, good sleep and pain reduction. Focus on an opposite or incompatible thought or object. Ponder on the perils and disadvantages of the thought, its harmful consequences. Ignore the thought and distract yourself from it through some other activity. Reflect on the removal or stopping of the causes of the target thought.
Make a forceful mental effort. In developing mindfulness, one is advised to be aware of all thoughts and sensations that arise, even unwanted or unpleasant ones and continuously attend to such thoughts. From the perspective of the Buddha, mental illness is a matter of degree, and ultimately, everyone who is not an awakened being is in some sense mentally ill. As the Buddha in the Pali canon states: “those beings are hard to find in the world who can admit freedom from mental disease even for one moment, save only those in whom the asavas are destroyed. The texts also assume that this ‘madness’ can be cured or recovered from, or is at least an impermanent phenomenon, after which, during confession, the monk is considered sane by the sangha once more. There are also stories of lay folk who show abnormal behavior due to the loss of their loved ones. Dhammas are phenomenal factors or “psycho-physical events” whose interrelations and connections make up all streams of human experience.