Apples are a seasonable product and so, it has been necessary to develop strategies to enlarge the life of harvest of empire 416 pages pdf product, thus allowing furnishing the market all along the year. The cold storage is the main technology used. Patulin is a mycotoxin whose ingestion may cause serious health problems.
Thus, several post-harvest treatments are applied to optimize the effect of low temperatures. The fungicide treatment is the most used. The overuse of fungicides has led to the emergence of fungicide-resistant strains and nowadays, the consumers are more and more concerned about the environmental consequences of the use of chemicals. As a consequence, the search for alternative methods which permit decrease the dose of chemicals or even avoid their use is a matter of concern for both producers and packinghouses. In this review, the effects of some technologies like the use of biocontrol agents and controlled atmosphere on apple decay and patulin accumulation are discussed and compared to conventional technologies.
Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. The historical, political and scientific aspects of salmon hatchery programmes designed to enhance fishery production, or to recover endangered populations, are reviewed. A rigorous analysis of the impacts of hatchery programmes was hindered by the lack of standardized data on release sizes and survival rates at all ecological scales, and since hatchery programme objectives are rarely defined, it was also difficult to measure their effectiveness at meeting release objectives. Debates on the genetic effects of hatchery programmes on wild fish have been dominated by whether correct management practices can reduce negative outcomes, but we noted that there has been an absence of programmatic research approaches addressing this important issue. Competitive interactions between hatchery and wild fish were observed to be complex, but studies researching approaches to reduce these interactions at all ecological scales during the entire salmon life history have been rare, and thus are not typically considered in hatchery management.