Further documentation is available here. Globalization is primarily an economic process of integration geographies of globalization murray pdf has social and cultural aspects. It involves goods and services, and the economic resources of capital, technology, and data. Large-scale globalization began in the 1820s.
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectivity of the world’s economies and cultures grew very quickly. The term ‘globalization’ had been used in its economic sense at least as early as 1981, and in other senses since at least as early as 1944. Theodore Levitt is credited with popularizing the term and bringing it into the mainstream business audience in the later half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations. Due to the complexity of the concept, various research projects, articles, and discussions often stay focused on a single aspect of globalization. Elizabeth King define globalization as “all those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single world society.
Although in its simplistic sense globalization refers to the widening, deepening and speeding up of global interconnection, such a definition begs further elaboration. Globalization can be on a continuum with the local, national and regional. Globalization can refer to those spatial-temporal processes of change which underpin a transformation in the organization of human affairs by linking together and expanding human activity across regions and continents. Without reference to such expansive spatial connections, there can be no clear or coherent formulation of this term. It pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact, to mutual benefit, with somebody on the other side of the world. Globalization is the extension of social relations across world-space, defining that world-space in terms of the historically variable ways that it has been practiced and socially understood through changing world-time.
A fifth dimension—the ideological—cutting across the other four. American Negro and his problem are taking on a global significance”. They have also argued that four different forms of globalization can be distinguished that complement and cut across the solely empirical dimensions. According to James, the oldest dominant form of globalization is embodied globalization, the movement of people. He calls the transmission of ideas, images, knowledge, and information across world-space disembodied globalization, maintaining that it is currently the dominant form of globalization. He asserted that the pace of globalization was quickening and that its impact on business organization and practice would continue to grow.
Meanwhile, he used “cultural globalization” to reference the worldwide homogenization of culture. Large-scale globalization began in the 19th century. In this schema, three main prerequisites are posited for globalization to occur. Without the spread of traditional ideas from the East, Western globalization would not have emerged the way it did. With early globalization, it was difficult for states to interact with others that were not within a close proximity. Eventually, technological advances allowed states to learn of others’ existence and thus another phase of globalization can occur. The third has to do with inter-dependency, stability, and regularity.