Learners converse about personal experiences with partners, and instructors teach topics outside of the realm of traditional grammar, in order to promote language skills in all types of situations. CLT also focuses on the teacher being a facilitator, rather than an instructor. Language teaching was originally considered a cognitive matter, mainly involving memorization. It was later thought, instead, to be socio-cognitive, meaning that language can be learned through english language teaching methods tools techniques pdf process of social interaction.
1960s, focusing on competence and performance in language learning, that gave rise to communicative language teaching, but the conceptual basis for CLT was laid in the 1970s by linguists Michael Halliday, who studied how language functions are expressed through grammar, and Dell Hymes, who introduced the idea of a wider communicative competence instead of Chomsky’s narrower linguistic competence. The rise of CLT in the 1970s and early 1980s was partly in response to the lack of success with traditional language teaching methods and partly due to the increase in demand for language learning. European Union, led to migration in Europe and an increased population of people who needed to learn a foreign language for work or for personal reasons. At the same time, more children were given the opportunity to learn foreign languages in school, as the number of secondary schools offering languages rose worldwide as part of a general trend of curriculum-broadening and modernization, and foreign-language study ceased to be confined to the elite academies. These methods assumed that students were aiming for mastery of the target language, and that students were willing to study for years before expecting to use the language in real life.
However, these assumptions were challenged by adult learners, who were busy with work, and some schoolchildren, who were less academically gifted, and thus could not devote years to learning before being able to use the language. CLT, an approach that emphasizes communicative ability and yielded better results. Foreign-language education was no exception to this trend, and teachers sought to find new methods, such as CLT, that could better embody this shift in thinking. The development of communicative language teaching was bolstered by new academic ideas. Before the growth of communicative language teaching, the primary method of language teaching was situational language teaching. This method was much more clinical in nature and relied less on direct communication. In Britain, applied linguists began to doubt the efficacy of situational language teaching.
This was partly in response to Chomsky’s insights into the nature of language. Chomsky had shown that the structural theories of language prevalent at the time could not explain the variety found in real communication. They saw a need for students to develop communicative skill and functional competence in addition to mastering language structures. This can be neatly summed up by Hymes’s statement, “There are rules of use without which the rules of grammar would be useless.
Hymes did not make a concrete formulation of communicative competence, but subsequent authors have tied the concept to language teaching, notably Michael Canale. When communicative language teaching had effectively replaced situational language teaching as the standard by leading linguists, the Council of Europe made an effort to once again bolster the growth of the new method. This led to the Council of Europe creating a new language syllabus. Education was a high priority for the Council of Europe, and they set out to provide a syllabus that would meet the needs of European immigrants. Among the studies used by the council when designing the course was one by the British linguist, D. Wilkins, that defined language using “notions” and “functions”, rather than more traditional categories of grammar and vocabulary. The new syllabus reinforced the idea that language could not be adequately explained by grammar and syntax, and instead relied on real interaction.