Engineering drawing symbols and their meanings pdf article has multiple issues. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. Gestures have been studied throughout the centuries from different perspectives. Institution Oratoria how gesture may be used in rhetorical discourse. Bulwer analyzed dozens of gestures and provided a guide on how to use gestures to increase eloquence and clarity for public speaking.
Gesture has frequently been taken up by researchers in the field of dance studies and performance studies in ways that emphasize the ways they are culturally and contextually inflected. Performance scholar, Carrie Noland, describes gestures as “learned techniques of the body” and stresses the way gestures are embodied corporeal forms of cultural communication. But rather than just residing within one cultural context, she describes how gesture migrate across bodies and locations to create new cultural meanings and associations. She also posits how they might function as a form of “resistance to homogenization” because they are so dependent on the specificities of the bodies that perform them.
Noland and Muñoz to investigate how gesture functions in queer sexual practices as a way to rewrite gender and negotiate power relations. Within the field of linguistics, the most hotly contested aspect of gesture revolves around the subcategory of Lexical or Iconic Co-Speech Gestures. Adam Kendon was the first linguist to hypothesize on their purpose when he argued that Lexical gestures do work to amplify or modulate the lexico-semantic content of the verbal speech with which they co-occur. However, since the late 1990s, most research has revolved around the contrasting hypothesis that Lexical gestures serve a primarily cognitive purpose in aiding the process of speech production.
As of 2012, there is research to suggest that Lexical Gesture does indeed serve a primarily communicative purpose and cognitive only secondary, but in the realm of socio-pragmatic communication, rather than lexico-semantic modification. Although the scientific study of gesture is still in its infancy, some broad categories of gestures have been identified by researchers. The first way to distinguish between categories of gesture is to differentiate between communicative gesture and informative gesture. While most gestures can be defined as possibly happening during the course of spoken utterances, the informative-communicative dichotomy focuses on intentionality of meaning and communication in co-speech gesture. Informative gestures are passive gestures that provide information about the speaker as a being and not about what the speaker is trying to communicate. Examples of informative gestures could include such actions as scratching an itch, adjusting clothing, or accessories, or interacting with object such as taking a drink or twirling a pen. These gestures can occur during speech, but they may also occur independently of communication, as they are not a part of active communication.
Communicative gestures are gestures that are not informative. The previous examples of informative gestures can become communicative when a speaker consciously uses them to communicate something about themselves or someone else. Within the realm of communicative gestures, the first distinction to be made is between gestures made with the hands and arms, and gestures made with other parts of the body. Non-manual gestures are attested in languages all around the world, but have not been the primary focus of most research regarding co-speech gesture. The most familiar are the so-called emblems or quotable gestures. These are conventional, culture-specific gestures that can be used as replacement for words, such as the handwave used in the US for “hello” and “goodbye”.
A single emblematic gesture can have a very different significance in different cultural contexts, ranging from complimentary to highly offensive. Symbolic gestures can occur either concurrently or independently of vocal speech. Symbolic gestures are iconic gestures that are widely recognized, fixed, and have conventionalized meanings. Deictic gestures can occur simultaneously with vocal speech or in place of it. These gestures often work in the same way as demonstrative words and pronouns like “this” or “that”. Unlike symbolic and deictic gestures, beat gestures cannot occur independently of verbal speech. For example, some people wave their hands as they speak to emphasize a certain word or phrase.