We evaluate the effects of different survey modes on respondents’ patterns of answers using an entropy measure of variability. Internet responses tend towards more diffuse positions due to lack of personal contact during the process and the social forces david mcnabb the new face of government pdf by that format. We introduce an entropy measure of dispersion for survey responses and illustrate its utility with election data from 2012.
Our results provide clear evidence that mode matters in modern survey research, and we make recommendations for interpreting results from different modes. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. It is a characteristic of children, variously defined, that motivates differences in school programming. It is thought to persist as a trait into adult life, with various consequences studied in longitudinal studies of giftedness over the last century.
Definitions of giftedness also vary across cultures. The various definitions of intellectual giftedness include either general high ability or specific abilities. For example, by some definitions an intellectually gifted person may have a striking talent for mathematics without equally strong language skills. In particular, the relationship between artistic ability or musical ability and the high academic ability usually associated with high IQ scores is still being explored, with some authors referring to all of those forms of high ability as “giftedness”, while other authors distinguish “giftedness” from “talent”. There is still much controversy and much research on the topic of how adult performance unfolds from trait differences in childhood, and what educational and other supports best help the development of adult giftedness.