Cyprus, Ancient near eastern texts relating to the old testament pdf, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories, Syria, and Turkey”. Ottomans were on the east of Europe. It now became relevant to define the east of the eastern question.
In about the middle of the 19th century “Near East” came into use to describe that part of the east closest to Europe. Those who used the term had little choice about its meaning. Some regions beyond the Ottoman Porte were included. One was North Africa west of Egypt. Formerly part of the empire at its apogee. Ottoman Empire or neighboring Russia. In the 1890s the term tended to focus on the conflicts in the Balkan states and Armenia.
The demise of the sick man of Europe left considerable confusion as to what was to be meant by “Near East”. There is, in short, no universally understood fixed inventory of nations, languages or historical assets defined to be in it. Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish and Germans, fit together as a pair based on the opposites of far and near, suggesting that they were innovated together. They appear together in the journals of the mid-19th century. Both terms were used before then with local British and American meanings: the near or far east of a field, village or shire. There was a linguistic predisposition to use such terms. Usually these terms were given with reference to a geographic feature, such as a mountain range or a river.