Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries. Tens of thousands of people were killed, and many 1848 year of revolution pdf forced into exile. The revolutions arose from such a wide variety of causes that it is difficult to view them as resulting from a coherent movement or set of social phenomena.
Numerous changes had been taking place in European society throughout the first half of the 19th century. Technological change was revolutionizing the life of the working classes. Some historians emphasize the serious crop failures, particularly those of 1846, that produced hardship among peasants and the working urban poor. Following the March insurrection in Berlin, they began agitating in Germany.